Saudi Arabia

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the Arabian Peninsula. It is sovereign and independent state in the Middle East and one of the world’s most important producers of oil and gas. It is an Islamic State whose laws and customs follow the Islamic tradition with the Islamic Law (Sharia) as the principal source of its legislation. Since 2015, the country has been governed by His Highness King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud.


The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia occupies four-fifths of the Arabian Peninsula with an area of 2,149,690 square kilometers.

Due to the size, the country has a diverse topography. Whereas, the Empty Quarter in the south-eastern part of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia occupies an estimated area of 640,000 square kilometers composed of sand hills and lava fields.

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is bordered by the Arabian Gulf, United Arab Emirates and Qatar in the east, the Red Sea in the west, Kuwait, Iraq and Jordan in the north and Yemen and Oman in the south.

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As of 1 January 2021, the population of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was estimated to be 35,192,038. This is an increase of 1.10 % or 378,167 people compared to a population of 34,813,871 in the middle of 2020 according to the data of the United Nations.

The population increased by 196,893 due to external migration. The gender ratio of the total population was 1.233 (1,233 males per 1,000 females) which is higher than global ratio of approximately 1,016 (1,016 males to 1,000 females) as of 2021.

According to Country Meter’s estimation the age structure was distributed in 10,405,040 young people under 15 years old (5,327,807 males & 5,077,233 females), 23,891,903 people between 15 and 64 years old (13,497,819 males & 10,394,084 females) and 1,045,063 people above 64 years old (546,741 males & 498,322 females) at the beginning of 2021.

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is divided in 13 regions and 136 governorates. The population of the three largest regions Makkah, Riyadh and Dammam accounted for over 68 percent of the population.

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The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was an underdeveloped country until the early 20th century. The country had a poor economic landscape, dominated by barren deserts, camel caravans, isolated date palms and Bedouin lifestyle.

The exceptions were a few coastal areas such as Jeddah on the west-coast because of pilgrims for the purpose of visiting Makkah and Madina as well as Qatif, Jubail and Al-Hasa on the east-coast due to long-time fishing, pearling and date-farming traditions.

The modern history of the country began in 1930s with the discovery of oil. Over a relatively short-span of time the economy has made rapid progress. From a poor country with limited resources, it emerged as a leading economic powerhouse in the Middle East. From a negligible GDP in the early 20th century, the country’s real per capita GDP (in terms of purchasing power parity) reached $56,817 in 2019.

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Saudi Vision 2030

The vision is a guide for economic, social, human and environmental development of the country in the coming years. It aims at transforming the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia into a vibrant society, a thriving economy and an ambitious nation by 2030, capable of sustaining its own development and providing for a high standard of living for all of its people for generations to come. The aims and intentions of Business Start Up Saudi Arabia are in line with Saudi Vision 2030 and the plans of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

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